Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 2, p.315 (1943); Vol. 16, p.39 (1936).
In a 5-l. flask
, fitted with a mechanical stirrer
and cooled in an ice bath
, are placed 2.7 l. of water and 350 cc. (644 g.) of concentrated sulfuric acid
(sp. gr. 1.84). When the temperature has fallen to 15°, 342 g. (403 cc., 3 moles) of heptaldehyde (Note 1)
is added, followed by 340 g. (2.15 moles) of potassium permanganate
in 15-g. portions. The permanganate is added at such a rate that the temperature does not rise above 20° (Note 2)
. When the addition of the permanganate is complete, sulfur dioxide
is passed through the solution until it becomes clear (Note 3)
. The oily layer is separated, washed once with water, and distilled from a modified Claisen flask having a 30-cm. fractionating side arm
. The fore-runs are separated from any water and distilled again; this is followed by a redistillation of the high-boiling fractions. The yield of material boiling at 159–161°/100 mm.
is 296–305 g.
per cent of the theoretical amount) (Note 4)
. This product is sufficiently pure for many purposes; titration indicates a purity of 95–97 per cent.
For further purification the product is dissolved in a solution of 140 g. (3.5 moles) of sodium hydroxide
in 700 cc. of water and steam-distilled from a 2-l. flask
until a test portion of the distillate is free of oil. The solution remaining in the flask is cooled to room temperature and acidified with 375 cc. (4.5 moles) of concentrated hydrochloric acid
. The heptanoic acid
is separated and distilled from a Claisen flask with fractionating side arm. The recovery of acid boiling at 155–157°/80 mm.
per cent of the weight of impure material used. Titration indicates it to be 100 per cent pure.
Freshly distilled heptaldehyde
boiling at 85.5–87.5°/90 mm.
The stirring must be vigorous. About two hours is required for the addition of the permanganate.
Occasionally the heptanoic acid
has a yellow color which cannot be removed by fractionation.
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