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Org. Synth. 1942, 22, 72
DOI: 10.15227/orgsyn.022.0072
IODOXYBENZENE
[Benzene, iodoxy-]
[A. DISPROPORTIONATION OF IODOSOBENZENE]
Submitted by H. J. Lucas and E. R. Kennedy.
Checked by John R. Johnson and M. W. Formo.
1. Procedure
In a 5-l. flask (Note 1), 110 g. (0.5 mole) of iodosobenzene (p. 483) is made into a thin paste with water, and the mixture is rapidly steam-distilled (Note 2) until almost all the iodobenzene (Note 3) is removed. The distillation should not be continued any longer than necessary, and the contents of the flask should be cooled at once. The white solid is filtered with suction and dried in the air at room temperature. It is then washed with chloroform, again dried, and the resulting cake is ground lightly in a mortar to facilitate removal of moisture in a final drying. The yield is 54–56 g. (92–95%). The product has a purity of about 99%, as determined by iodimetry (Note 4). The solid may be crystallized from hot water (Note 5).
2. Notes
1. Because of a tendency to froth, a large flask should be used.
2. Direct heating must be avoided, as the solid reactant and product may decompose with explosive violence on heating, especially when dry.
3. The recovered iodobenzene is quite pure and may be used for the preparation of iodobenzene dichloride. The recovery is about 46 g. (90%).
4. The iodimetric method described under iodosobenzene (p. 484) is applicable here. The main impurity in the iodoxybenzene is iodosobenzene.
5. The solubility of iodoxybenzene, per liter of water, is 2.8 g. at 12°, and about 12 g. at 100°.
[B. HYPOCHLORITE OXIDATION OF IODOBENZENE DICHLORIDE]
Submitted by M. W. Formo and John R. Johnson.
Checked by Lee Irvin Smith, R. T. Arnold, and Louis E. Demytt.
1. Procedure
In a 2-l. round-bottomed flask equipped with an efficient mechanical stirrer (Note 1) are placed 110 g. (0.4 mole) of freshly prepared, pulverized iodobenzene dichloride (p. 482) (Note 2), 1.0 mole of sodium hypochlorite solution (Note 3), and 2 ml. of glacial acetic acid. The vigorously stirred mixture is heated on a water bath maintained at 65–75°. After 10–15 minutes the heated mixture becomes frothy and the yellow color of iodobenzene dichloride is displaced by the white color of iodoxybenzene. The stirring is stopped after 1 hour, and the flask is cooled in an ice bath. The product is filtered with suction, pressed with a glass stopper, and transferred to an 800-ml. beaker. The material is stirred thoroughly with 300 ml. of water, filtered with suction, washed on the filter with 100 ml. of water, pressed, and dried in the air. The crude product weighs 85–89 g. (90–94%) and has a purity, as determined iodimetrically, of 97–99% (Note 4). The air-dried material may be washed with 50–60 ml. of chloroform, air-dried, and finally dried in a vacuum desiccator. This product weighs 82–87g. (87–92%) and has a purity of 99.0–99.9% as determined by iodimetry (Note 5).
2. Notes
1. A Hershberg stirrer is well suited for stirring the pasty suspension.
2. Any lumps of iodobenzene dichloride should be broken up by pressing with a spatula; otherwise the reaction may be incomplete.
3. Stabilized hypochlorite solutions, commercially available, are satisfactory. The submitters used 1.15 l. of "Clorox" solution, containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite by weight.
4. The iodimetric method as described under iodosobenzene (p. 484) is applicable here. The crude product is satisfactory for the preparation of diphenyliodonium iodide (p. 355).
5. The checkers obtained the yields claimed, but the purity of the product was 90% before, and 95.7% after, washing with chloroform.
3. Discussion
Iodoxybenzene has been prepared by oxidizing iodobenzene with Caro's acid;1,2 by treating iodobenzene with hypochlorous acid or with aqueous sodium hydroxide and bromine;3 by action of chlorine upon iodobenzene dissolved in pyridine;4 by oxidation of iodosobenzene with hypochlorous acid or bleaching powder;5 by heating iodosobenzene;6 by steam distillation of iodosobenzene;7 by heating iodobenzene dichloride with aqueous sodium hypochlorite containing some acetic acid;8 and by oxidation of iodobenzene with concentrated chloric acid solution.9

References and Notes
  1. Bamberger and Hill, Ber., 33, 534 (1900).
  2. Masson, Race, and Pounder, J. Chem. Soc., 1935, 1678.
  3. Willgerodt, Ber., 29, 1571, 1572 (1896).
  4. Ortoleva, Chem. Zentr., 1900, I, 723.
  5. Willgerodt, Ber., 29, 1568, 1569 (1896).
  6. Willgerodt, Ber., 25, 3500 (1892); 26, 1806 (1893); Askenasy and Meyer, Ber., 26, 1356 (1893).
  7. Willgerodt, Ber., 26, 358, 1307 (1893).
  8. Willgerodt and Wiegand, Ber., 42, 3765 (1909).
  9. Datta and Choudhury, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38, 1085 (1916).

Appendix
Chemical Abstracts Nomenclature (Collective Index Number);
(Registry Number)

acetic acid (64-19-7)

sodium hydroxide (1310-73-2)

chloroform (67-66-3)

bromine (7726-95-6)

pyridine (110-86-1)

chlorine (7782-50-5)

hypochlorous acid (7790-92-3)

sodium hypochlorite (7681-52-9)

Iodobenzene (591-50-4)

iodobenzene dichloride (2401-21-0)

DIPHENYLIODONIUM IODIDE (2217-79-0)

Iodosobenzene (536-80-1)

Iodoxybenzene,
Benzene, iodoxy- (696-33-3)