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Org. Synth. 2000, 77, 135
DOI: 10.15227/orgsyn.077.0135
STILLE COUPLINGS CATALYZED BY PALLADIUM-ON-CARBON WITH CuI AS A COCATALYST: SYNTHESIS OF 2-(4'-ACETYLPHENYL)THIOPHENE 1
Submitted by Lanny S. Liebeskind2 and Eduardo Peña-Cabrera3 .
Checked by Jory Wendling and Louis S. Hegedus.
1. Procedure
A 200-mL, flame-dried Schlenk flask is purged with nitrogen and charged with 10.0 g (40.6 mmol) of 4-iodoacetophenone (Note 1), 770 mg (4.1 mmol) of copper(I) iodide (CuI) (Note 2), 2.5 g (8.1 mmol) of triphenylarsine (Note 3), and 150 mL of anhydrous 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (Note 4). The dark solution is degassed for 15 min (nitrogen sparge) and then 14.1 mL (44.7 mmol) of 2-(tributylstannyl)thiophene (Note 5) is added. The reaction flask is immersed in a preheated oil bath at 95°C and 215 mg (0.2 mmol) of 10% palladium on activated carbon (Note 6) is added under a positive nitrogen pressure. The mixture is kept at 95°C for 24 hr (Note 7) and then allowed to cool to 25°C and diluted with 300 mL of ethyl acetate . The dark mixture is poured into 200 mL of an aqueous saturated sodium fluoride solution (Note 8) and stirred vigorously for 30 min. The green-yellow heterogeneous mixture is passed through a sand pad contained in a medium-frit filter, aided by a water aspirator (Note 9). The filtrate is partitioned in a separatory funnel and the aqueous layer is extracted with two 100-mL portions of ethyl acetate . The organic extracts are combined and stirred with 200 mL of fresh saturated aqueous sodium fluoride solution for 30 min. The mixture is then passed through a sand pad as described above. The pad is rinsed with 50 mL of ethyl acetate . The mixture is partitioned again and the aqueous layer is extracted with two 50-mL portions of ethyl acetate . The organic extracts are combined and washed with five 100-mL portions of water and finally with 100 mL of brine (Note 10). The dark yellow solution is dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) (Note 11) and filtered. The used MgSO4 is washed with 50 mL of ethyl acetate . The solvent is removed under reduced pressure to give a dark yellow solid that is dissolved in the minimum amount of dichloromethane and adsorbed onto 20 g of silica gel (Note 12). The solvent is thoroughly removed under reduced pressure and the resulting solid is charged into a medium-pressure liquid chromatography column (silica gel, 3 × 15 cm) (Note 13). The product (6.6 g, 80%) (Note 14) is purified as described by Baeckström et al.4 (Note 15).
2. Notes
1. 4-Iodoacetophenone was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. , and used without purification.
2. Copper(I) iodide was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. , and purified according to a literature procedure.5
3. Caution: Triphenylarsine is highly toxic and must be handled with gloves in a well-ventilated hood. It was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., and used as received.
4. Anhydrous 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. , and used without further drying. The water content was determined to be 117 ppm using a Coulomatric K-F Titrimeter.
5. 2-(Tributylstannyl)thiophene was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. , and is used without additional purification.
6. 10% Palladium on activated carbon was purchased from Alpha Division .
7. The reaction can be monitored by quenching small aliquots with water and extracting with a small amount of diethyl ether. The ethereal layer is spotted on an analytical silica gel TLC plate (0.25 mm thickness, from EM Separations Technology) ( 10% ethyl acetate in hexanes, using 254 nm UV light to visualize the spots). The following are the Rf's of the components of the mixture: 2-(tributylstannyl)thiophene (0.86), triphenylarsine (0.62), 4-iodoacetophenone (0.48), and 2-(4'-acetylphenyl)thiophene , (0.38 fluorescent). Trace amounts of 4-butylbenzophenone (Rf, 0.52) were observed at the end of the reaction.
8. Caution: Sodium fluoride is highly toxic and should be handled with gloves in a well-ventilated hood. It was purchased from Spectrum Chemical Mfg. Corp. and used without purification.
9. If crystallization underneath the frit occurs during the filtration process, the sand pad is washed with 20 mL of ethyl acetate . The sand pad was changed three times during the filtration of the whole mixture to avoid clogging.
10. The washings are necessary to remove all the 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone.
11. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was obtained from EM Science .
12. Silica gel 60, particle size 0.040-0.063 mm (230-400 mesh) was obtained from EM Separation Technology .
13. The medium-pressure liquid chromatography system (MPLC) was purchased from Baeckström SEPARO AB.
14. The product (a golden flaky solid) exhibits the following properties: mp 118-119°C; IR (CH2Cl2) cm−1: 1680, 1601, 1270 ; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 2.6 (s, 3 H), 7.1 (m, 1 H), 7.3 (d, 1 H, J = 5), 7.4 (d, 1 H, J = 3.8), 7.7 (d, 2 H, J = 8), 8.0 (d, 2 H, J = 9) ; 13C NMR (75.5 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 26.5, 124.6, 125.6, 126.4, 128.3, 129.1, 135.7, 138.7, 142.9, 197.2 . Anal. Calcd for C12H10OS: C, 71.30; H, 5.00; S, 15.90. Found: C, 71.14; H, 5.03; S, 15.77. (The material obtained by the checkers was a very pale yellow flaky solid.)
15. The purification was carried out using a hexanes/dichloromethane gradient (200 mL of each gradient solution). The gradient started with hexanes at a flow rate of 25 mL/min and the concentration of dichloromethane was increased each time by 10%. A total of fifty 30-mL fractions were collected. Under these conditions, most of the triphenylarsine used was recovered and recycled. (The checkers purified the material using conventional flash chromatography techniques. The crude product adsorbed on 20 g of flash silica gel was dry packed on a 6-cm × 14-cm column of flash silica gel. Elution with 750 mL of hexanes followed by 500 mL each of a hexane/dichloromethane gradient starting with 10% dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)/hexanes and finishing with 100% CH2Cl2. A total of fifty 100-mL fractions were collected. The separation was monitored by analytical TLC as described in (Note 7).)
Handling and Disposal of Hazardous Chemicals
The procedures in this article are intended for use only by persons with prior training in experimental organic chemistry. All hazardous materials should be handled using the standard procedures for work with chemicals described in references such as "Prudent Practices in the Laboratory" (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2011 www.nap.edu). All chemical waste should be disposed of in accordance with local regulations. For general guidelines for the management of chemical waste, see Chapter 8 of Prudent Practices.
These procedures must be conducted at one's own risk. Organic Syntheses, Inc., its Editors, and its Board of Directors do not warrant or guarantee the safety of individuals using these procedures and hereby disclaim any liability for any injuries or damages claimed to have resulted from or related in any way to the procedures herein.
3. Discussion
The rate-enhancing influence of Cu(I) salts (the so-called "Copper Effect") in normally nonproductive and sluggish Stille couplings was first pointed out by Liebeskind et al.6 in 1990. A greater insight into this phenomenon was obtained later by Farina and co-workers.7 A number of modifications of the Stille reaction have since been reported. Among them are the cross-coupling of organostannanes with organic halides promoted by stoichiometric amounts of Cu(I) salts,8 9 10 and the Cu(I)- or Mn(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling of organostannanes with iodides in the presence of sodium chloride.11
It was also discovered that aryl and vinyl iodides, bromides, and triflates participated efficiently in cross-coupling reactions with organostannanes when catalyzed by palladium-on-carbon in the presence of Cu(I) as cocatalyst.1
The best conditions were found to be: Pd/C (0.5 mole%), Cu(I) (10 mole%), and AsPh3 (20 mole%). Besides the advantage of using a stable form of Pd(0), the yield of the products under these conditions was better than that obtained using tris(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium [Pd2(dba)3] as the source of Pd(0). Similarly, a slightly lesser amount of the homocoupled product was observed using the Pd/C protocol. Although a significant amount of AsPh3 is necessary for cross-coupling to take place, it can be efficiently recovered (and recycled) at the end of the reaction by column chromatogaphy.
Other products prepared using the Pd/C protocol are:

References and Notes
  1. The original report was published elsewhere: Roth, G. P.; Farina, V.; Liebeskind, L. S.; Peña-Cabrera, E. Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 2191.
  2. Chemistry Department, Emory University, 1515 Pierce Dr., Atlanta, GA 30322.
  3. Facultad de Química, Universidad de Guanajuato, Col. Noria Alta S/N, Guanajuato, Gto. 36000, Mexico.
  4. Baeckström, P.; Stridh, K.; Li, L.; Norin, T. Acta Chem. Scand, Ser. B 1987, B41, 442.
  5. Kauffman, G. B.; Teter, L. A. Inorg. Synth. 1963, 7, 9.
  6. Liebeskind, L. S.; Fengl, R. W. J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55, 5359.
  7. Farina, V.; Kapadia, S.; Krishnan, B.; Wang, C.; Liebeskind, L. S. J. Org. Chem. 1994, 59, 5905.
  8. Piers, E.; Romero, M. A. J. Am. Chem Soc. 1996, 118, 1215,
  9. Takeda, T.; Matsunaga, K.; Kabawasa, Y.; Fujiwara, T. Chem. Lett. 1995, 771,
  10. Allred, G. D.; Liebeskind, L. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 2748.
  11. Kang, S-K; Kim, J-S.; Choi, S-C. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 4208.

Appendix
Chemical Abstracts Nomenclature (Collective Index Number);
(Registry Number)

4-Iodoacetophenone:
Acetophenone, 4'-iodo- (8);
Ethanone, 1-(4-iodophenyl)- (9); (13329-40-3)

Copper(I) iodide (8,9); (7681-65-4)

Triphenylarsine: HIGHLY TOXIC:
Arsine, triphenyl- (8,9); (603-32-7)

1-Methylpyrrolidinone:
2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl- (8,9); (872-50-4)

2-(Tributylstannyl)thiophene:
Stannane, tributyl-2-thienyl- (9); (54663-78-4)

Sodium fluoride (8,9); (7681-49-4)