A Publication
of Reliable Methods
for the Preparation
of Organic Compounds
Annual Volume
Page
GO
GO
?
^
Top
Org. Synth. 1943, 23, 86
DOI: 10.15227/orgsyn.023.0086
trans-STILBENE
Submitted by R. L. Shriner and Alfred Berger.
Checked by W. E. Bachmann and Charles E. Maxwell.
1. Procedure
In a 4-l. beaker, equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer which reaches nearly to the bottom, are placed 500 ml. of water and 50 g. of mercuric chloride. The stirrer is started, and 200 g. (3.06 gram atoms) of zinc dust (Note 1) is rapidly sifted into the suspension. Stirring is continued until the mercuric chloride dissolves (about 20–30 minutes). The zinc is then allowed to settle, the supernatant liquid is removed by decantation, and the amalgam is filtered and washed with 200 ml. of water. The zinc amalgam is returned to the beaker, which is now surrounded by an ice bath, and 500 ml. of 95% ethanol and 100 g. (0.48 mole) of benzoin are added. The stirrer is started, and 500 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added through a dropping funnel at such a rate that addition is complete in about 2 hours; throughout the reaction the temperature is maintained below 15°. Stirring is continued for about 2 hours more.
About 2 l. of cold water is added to the reaction mixture, and the insoluble material is collected on a Büchner funnel. The precipitate is transferred to a 2-l. beaker and extracted with two 600-ml. portions of hot ethanol. The combined extracts, on cooling, deposit long needles of stilbene which weigh 55–59 g. and melt at 116–121°. These are filtered with suction and are recrystallized from 600 ml. of 95% ethanol. The yield is 45–48 g. (53–57%) of colorless needless melting at 123–124°.
2. Notes
1. The zinc dust used was obtained from J. T. Baker and Company.
3. Discussion
The procedure described is essentially that of Ballard and Dehn.1 Stilbene has also been prepared by reduction of desoxybenzoin,2 benzaldehyde3 and benzil;2,4 by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene,5 toluene,5,6,7 and bibenzyl;6,8 by alkaline reduction of phenylnitromethane,9 phenylnitroacetonitrile,9 and desoxybenzoin;10 by distillation of benzyl sulfone,11 benzyl sulfide,11,12 calcium cinnamate,13 cinnamic acid,14 phenyl cinnamate,15,16 and diphenyl fumarate,11 by dehydrohalogenation of α,α'-dichlorobibenzyl17 and benzyl chloride;18 by dehalogenation of α,α,α',α'-tetrachlorobibenzyl19 and benzal chloride;20 by the coupling of cinnamic acid and phenyldiazonium chloride;21 by dehydration of benzylphenylcarbinol,17,22 benzyl ether,23 and benzyl alcohol;23,24 by treatment of benzaldehyde ethyl mercaptal with Raney nickel;25 by pyrolysis of methyl benzyl dithiocarbonate;26 and by catalytic desulfurization of trithiobenzaldehyde.27 The diazonium coupling reaction21 appears to have the widest applicability for the synthesis of substituted stilbenes.
This preparation is referenced from:

References and Notes
  1. Ballard and Dehn, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 54, 3969 (1932).
  2. Irvine and Weir, J. Chem. Soc., 91, 1384 (1907);
  3. Williams, Jahresb., 1867, 672; Barbaglia and Marquardt, Gazz. chim. ital., 21, 195 (1891); Baumann and Klett, Ber., 24, 3307 (1891); Law, J. Chem. Soc., 91, 748 (1907); Schepps, Ber., 46, 2564 (1913);
  4. Jena and Limpricht, Ann., 155, 89 (1870); Blank, Ann., 248, 1 (1888).
  5. Meyer and Hofmann, Monatsh., 37, 681 (1916);
  6. Behr and van Dorp, Ber., 6, 753 (1873); Aronstein and van Nierop, Rec. trav. chim., 21, 448 (1902);
  7. Lorenz, Ber., 7, 1096 (1874); Ber., 8, 1455 (1875); Lange, Ber., 8, 502 (1875); Michaelis and Lange, Ber., 8, 1313 (1875); Michaelis and Paneck, Ann., 212, 203 (1882);
  8. Dreher and Otto, Ann., 154, 171 (1870); Barbier, Compt. rend., 78, 1769 (1874); Radziszewski, Ber., 8, 756 (1875); Kade, J. prakt. Chem., (2) 19, 461 (1879).
  9. Wislicenus and Endes, Ber., 36, 1194 (1903);
  10. Sudborough, J. Chem. Soc., 67, 601 (1895).
  11. Fromm and Achert, Ber., 36, 534 (1903);
  12. Märcker, Ann., 136, 75 (1865); Limpricht and Schwanert, Ann., 145, 330 (1868); Forst, Ann., 178, 370 (1875);
  13. Engler and Leist, Ber., 6, 254 (1873);
  14. von Miller, Ann., 189, 338 (1877);
  15. Anschütz, Ber., 18, 1945 (1885);
  16. Skraup and Beng, Ber., 60, 942 (1927).
  17. Meisenheimer and Heim, Ann., 355, 249 (1907);
  18. Tschitschibabin, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 34, 130 (1902); Loeb, Ber., 36, 3059 (1903); Acree, Am. Chem. J., 29, 593 (1907).
  19. Liebermann and Homeyer, Ber., 12, 1971 (1879);
  20. Limpricht, Ann., 139, 303 (1866); Lippmann and Hawliczek, Jahresb., 1877, 405.
  21. Meerwein, Büchner, and van Emster, J. prakt. Chem., (2) 152, 237 (1939).
  22. Limpricht and Schwanert, Ann., 155, 59 (1870); Hell, Ber., 37, 453 (1904);
  23. Szperl, Chemik Polski, 15, 23 (1917) [C. A., 13, 2865 (1919)];
  24. Guerbet, Compt. rend., 146, 298 (1908); Bull. soc. chim. France, (4) 3, 500 (1908).
  25. Hauptmann and Camargo, Experientia, 4, 385 (1948).
  26. Laakso, Suomen Kemistilehti, 16B, 19 (1943); [C. A., 40, 4687 (1946)].
  27. Wood, Bacon, Meibohm, Throckmorton, and Turner, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 63, 1334 (1941).

Appendix
Chemical Abstracts Nomenclature (Collective Index Number);
(Registry Number)

Desoxybenzoin

ethanol (64-17-5)

hydrochloric acid (7647-01-0)

phenyldiazonium chloride

benzaldehyde (100-52-7)

Raney nickel (7440-02-0)

Benzil (134-81-6)

Benzoin (119-53-9)

toluene (108-88-3)

zinc (7440-66-6)

benzyl chloride (100-44-7)

Benzyl alcohol (100-51-6)

benzyl ether (103-50-4)

mercuric chloride (7487-94-7)

ethylbenzene (100-41-4)

cinnamic acid (621-82-9)

benzal chloride (98-87-3)

Phenylnitromethane (622-42-4)

stilbene

α,α'-dichlorobibenzyl

Phenyl cinnamate (2757-04-2)

bibenzyl (103-29-7)

phenylnitroacetonitrile

benzyl sulfone (620-32-6)

calcium cinnamate

diphenyl fumarate

benzaldehyde ethyl mercaptal

methyl benzyl dithiocarbonate

trithiobenzaldehyde

Benzyl sulfide (538-74-9)

trans-Stilbene (103-30-0)

α,α,α',α'-tetrachlorobibenzyl

benzylphenylcarbinol (614-29-9)